DAN BODESCU, GEORGE UNGUREANU, RADU ADRIAN MORARU, IOAN GABRIEL SANDU, COSTICA BEJINARIU MONITORING THE ANTHROPOGENIC TOXICITY OF SPONTANEOUS FLORA IN NEAMT COUNTY THROUGH STUDIES OF THE HONEY BEE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS The products of honey bees can be used as indicators and monitors of a variety of environmental pollutants because of the bees’ ability to collect materials that reflect their immediate environmental conditions. Human activities produce more waste and administrate the pesticides, the amounts and toxicity of which often exceed the environment’s homeostatic capacity to cleanse itself, and this is constantly transforming due to intensive agricultural practices necessary to increase food production as human population grows. The main sources for contamination of honey with heavy metals are represented by placing hives near urban areas with heavy car traffic, or industrialized areas and the use on the entire circuit of production, objects or containers made of materials unsuitable (unacceptable). For that reason regular monitoring of the environment is so important. Honey bees, thanks to their morphological features, and also bee products are regarded as good indicators of environmental pollution by toxic substances, be these heavy metals, radioactive elements or persistent organic pollutants such as pesticides. Consequently, it is important to estimate the environmental fate and Eco toxicological effects of these different xenobiotic. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been used as biological indicators of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) in two intensely cultivated in areas of Neamt County, Romania. This area is representative for the pre-mountain and mountain zone of Romania. The stratified sample has been face-to-face interviewed in 2016 regarding the data from the year 2015. The total consumption specific for the honey production was about 628 MJ hive-1, and the energy output reached 235 MJ hive-1, determining an energy productivity of 0.030 kg MJ-1 and an energy use efficiency of 0.37. Specific energy amounted 33.3MJ kg-1 due to the inefficiency of traveling during the apiaries movements and the inappropriate correlation between the apiaries size and the zonal melliferous potential. In this paper available literature data and information on the morphological features of the honey bee, the utilization of the honey bee and its products as indicators of environmental pollution, and a historical outline of some of the legislation relating to beekeeping have been critically compared and discussed.
Keywords: environment, indicators, monitors, energy efficiency, beekeeping management, honey production