ELENA MIHALCEANU, ALINA MIHAELA CALIN, MIHAELA DEBITA, DRAGOS NEGRU, GETA MITREA, IRINA NEGRU THE MULTISYSTEMIC EFFECT OF OESTRADIOL VARIATIONS
Ovarian hormones are: oestrogenic hormone, also known as follicular hormone or female sexual hormone or chemically oestradiol; yellow body hormone, progestin or, chemically, progesterone. Oestrogenic hormone is particularly involved in the first part of the oestrus period, and the yellow body hormone in the second part (pseudo-pregnancy) and in the gestation state; the third ovarian hormone, known as relaxin, was isolated from the yellow body. Oestrogens are responsible for the development of female secondary features. Together with progesterone it controls the most important female reproductive processes. The most biologically active of oestrogens is 17b-oestradiol. Oestradiol is produced by ovarian follicles, testicles, but also by some organs such as the liver, adrenal glands, mammary glands and the brain. Oestradiol activates two specific nuclear proteins, oestrogen receptors alpha (ERá) and oestrogen receptors beta (Erâ). Oestrogen receptors alpha are predominant in the mammary gland, genital apparatus, bone, nervous and cardiovascular system. Oestrogen receptors beta are found in the uterus, monocytes, tissue macrophages, colon and lung epithelial cells, epithelial cells of the prostate. The main actions of oestradiol are: endometrial proliferation, effects on the vagina and the mammary gland; it also has a role in preventing osteoporosis and reducing cardiovascular risk. Oestradiol is primarily produced in the ovary (the follicle, yellow body), but small amounts are also formed in the testicles and the cortex of the adrenals. In pregnancy, oestrogen is mainly produced by the placenta. Approximately 98% of oestradiol is linked to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The level of oestradiol increases throughout the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in close dependence with the growth and development of the ovarian follicle. For the determination of oestradiol, we conducted a study of 64 people, of which 47 women (73.43% and 17 men (26.57%). The presence of oestrogen receptors alpha indicates an increased risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer is hormone dependent, 74% of cases are oestrogen-positive receptors, and 30% of cases are progesterone-positive receptors. The main reason for the development of hyperplasia is the increase in oestrogen levels.