MADALINA GABRIELA BARBU, DANA CLAUDIA THOMPSON, CARMEN ELENA CONDRAT, IOAN SORIN TUDORACHE, ANDREI DENNIS VOICHITOIU, DRAGOS CRETOIU, OANA DANIELA TOADER, NICOLAE SUCIU MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY AND LATE OUTCOMES IN CHILD’S DEVELOPMENT
Iodine is a fundamental component of thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormones which are essential for the natural growth and development of the child. Pregnant women are required to generate higher amounts of thyroid hormones in order to meet both their own and their children’s needs, therefore iodine intake should be enhanced by over 50% during this period. The normal neurodevelopment of the fetus is made possible through sufficient amounts of T3 available in the fetal brain, which are derived from the mother’s own free T4. Low levels of maternal free T4 that can be witnessed in iodine deficiency contribute to the poor neurodevelopment of the fetus. The most severe outcome of maternal iodine deficiency is, without doubt, cretinism. This review is therefore meant to highlight the necessity for more rigorous investigations into the extent and importance of maternal iodine deficiency in the child’s development.